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A conspiracy theory is a theory that provides an alternative explanation to the established understanding of a historical or current event. Often, it is claimed that this event is the result of conscious manipulations by individuals or secretive powers. Due to our incomplete knowledge about the world, it can usually not ultimately be decided which explanatory model is more true - the established understanding of an event or the respective conspiracy theory.

Thank you for your interest in our research. What it is about...

Conspiracy theories are part of our everyday lives - circulated through direct discussions with others, newspapers and magazines, TV, the Internet, and other media. People either believe in them or reject them. As the above definiton states: in the end, there is usually no way to decide whether a conspiracy theory is true or false. People who endorse a conspiracy theory could be right or wrong - as could anybody else for that matter.

In this short questionnaire, we are interested in the extent to which you personally believe in conspiracy theories. At the end of the questionnaire you will have a possibility to see your personal average score and compare your endorsement of conspiracy theories with other respondents to this questionnaire.

For your protection, the researchers have obtained ethical approval for this study from the Ethics Committee of the School of Psychology at Cardiff University, UK, where this research is based. If you have questions or concerns about any aspect of this project or its technical operation, please e-mail Martin Bruder (wipfelhauch‑ If you have specific ethical concerns about this study or questions about your rights as a participant, you may also contact Prof Antony Manstead (, the supervisor in charge of this project.

Clicking the start-button below is evidence that you have read and understood the following and agree to it:

  • your participation in the study will involve answering a questionnaire on conspiracy theories. Completion will take approx. 10 minutes.
  • your participation is entirely voluntary, you may refuse to answer any of the questions, and you can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of privilege.
  • you must be 18 years or older to participate.
  • the information provided by you will be held totally anonymously and you will not be identified in any presentation or publication of this research. It will be impossible to trace your data back to you individually. In accordance with the UK Data Protection Act, this information may be retained indefinitely.
  • although your data will be anonymous, you should note that this study is not being run from a "secure" https-server of the kind typically used to handle credit card transactions. This means that there is a small possibility that responses could be viewed by unauthorised third parties.
  • many individuals find participation in this study interesting and there are no foreseeable risks associated with your participation. At the end of the study you will be provided with additional information and you may choose to view your personal results.

Some questions about yourself...

We would first like to ask you for some information that we will need to properly analyse your data. Answering these questions will not compromise the anonymity of your data.

Your gender:   Your age:

Your occupation:

Your highest degree:

Your country of residence: 

Your native language:

If English is not your native language, please indicate your command of English:
poor   fair   good   excellent     (English is my native language)

If you agree to the above and would like to participate, please click the start-button.  


principal investigator:
Martin Bruder
School of Psychology
Cardiff University
Tower Building
Park Place
Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK

Prof. Antony Manstead
School of Psychology
Cardiff University
Tower Building
Park Place
Cardiff, CF10 3AT, UK